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Sand is a clastic sediment that is composed from grains with a size between 63 micrometers and 2 millimeters. Materials with a finer grain size are called silt, coarser ones are called gravel. The graines come from degraded rocks. This can be for example quarz, or broken shells. Sand is very common, and it mostly consists of quarz, because that's the hardest common component of rocks. When sand hardens under influence of diagenesis, it becomes sandstone.

The angularity and sorting of the grain contains information on origin and transport. Rounded grains have a longer history of transport as compared to angular grains. Transport by wind results in heavily rounded grains, as compared to water transport. Aeolian sand deposits are often well-sorted and homogenous, because only a relatively finer fraction can be carried by winds.

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