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Speciation is the emergence of new species from already existing species. This is the basis of the evolution theory of Charles Darwin. In the case of very short-living species such as the fruit fly experiments showed processes that play a role in the speciation.
New species may form due to separation of a part of a population from the rest. This can be a physical separation. For example, there is a mountain where the species can no longer pass. New species can also occur without physical separation of a population through various biological causes. There is still a lot of research being done.
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