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Basalt is an extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed during the rapid solidification of lava. Basalt has a very recognizable grey-black color. As a result of to the rapid solidification, no large crystals were able to form. During this cooling process, the characteristic cracks (often hexagonal) result in immense basalt columns.

Basalt arises with volcanic eruptions both on land as under water, as is the case in the center of the mid-oceanic ridge (forming pillow basalts). Besides a fraction of autogenic sediments, the upper part of the oceanic crust, consists of basalt.

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