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Bones of vertebrates

The skeleton of vertebrates, including mammals, generally have a similar structure. Every type of bone has a scientific or Latin designation as well, which is being used quite often in identification.

Skull: cranium
Upper jaw or maxilla: maxilla
Lower jaw or mandible: mandibula
First cervical vertebra: atlas
Second cervical vertebra or axis: epistropheus
Cervical vertebrae: vertebrae cervicales
Thoracic vertebrae: vertebrae thoracicae
Lumbar vertebrae: vertebrae lumbales
Sacrum or aitchbone: sacrum
Sternum: sternum
Ribs: costae
Scapula/shoulder blade: scapula
Humerus: humerus
Radial bone or radius: radius
Ulna or elbow bone: ulna
Carpus or carpal bones: carpalia
Metacarpus or metacarpal bones: metacarpalia
Phalanx bone or phalanges: phalange
Pelvis or bony pelvis: pelvis
Thigh bone: femur
Kneecap: patella
Shin: tibia
Calf bone or fibula: fibula
Tarsus or tarsal bones: tarsalia
Metatarsus or metatarsal bones: metatarsalia


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