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Geologically, rock is a solid material which is found beneath the surface of Earth’s crust. It consists of fragments (clasts) or of minerals. Deposits that have not yet hardened to become rock are geologically also considered to be rock. So, a loose layer of sand or a clay package is also rock. Even a package of land ice could be considered to be rock.

Rocks can be classified as sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks and igneous rocks, depending on how they are formed. The building blocks of rocks are minerals, which appear in many types.

 For more information, see the page about types of rock.

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