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Breccia is a type of rock composed of irregular fragments of (sometimes older and other) rocks. These fragments  often occur in a cemented matrix of smaller material. Geologist mainly describe them as clastic rocks. Sometimes, the matrix and its debris have a similar origin, but this isn’t always the case.

Breccia can be formed by mudslides (even on oceanic floors), landslides, or dismemberment of a rock formation, by faults and fractures. Volcanic breccia can also occur.

Generally, breccia with a large amount of angular fragments, has been transported less than breccia with rounder fragments.

The angular fragments can be observed easily in this breccia. Photo Marijn Roosen

Breccia in Sibinj Kmpotski, Croatia. Photo Herman Zevenberg

Polished breccia with visible angular components. Photo: Herman Zevenberg.

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