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A transgression is the shifting of the coastline inland during a certain geological time. The opposite is a regression. A transgression can be caused by both absolute sea level rise (e.g. climate change), or the subsidence of the land.
Subsidence of the land can be caused by tectonic forces, but also because the subsiding due to the proximity of an ice sheet. The weight of an icesheet in the area causes the Earth's crust to subside localy.
In sedimentary rocks is a transgression can be generally recognized by a trend of thinner layers with finer sediments in the stratigraphy.
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