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The Pleistocene is a geologic period that lasted from 2,588 million years to 11,560 years ago. The Pleistocene is followed by the Holecene, and it is preceded by the Pliocene.

During the Pleistocene there have been more than 50 glacials. In these ice ages it was relatively much colder and ice sheets formed, or expanded. Between glacial periods were the interglacials with a warmer climate. In the Pleistocene hominids were further developed and spread across the continents. Furthermore, during the glacials many kinds of vertebrates lived 
in the now temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. For example the mammoth, cave lion, cave hyena, Megaloceros, Homotherium and woolly rhinoceros, which are still found regularly as fossils in this region.

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