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Palynology is the study of recent and fossil pollen and spores of fungi. With the aid of pollen analysis of ancient sediment layers, it is possible to reconstruct the paleo environment. In archeology palynology is used too.

The pollen consist of organic material and are generally 5 to 50 micrometers in size. In order to view them properly, an electron microscope is used. In sediments pollen are only preserved under low-oxygen conditions.

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