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A fold in a rock is usually the result of major tectonic forces. By a mountain formation (orogeny) rocks are deformed and folded on a large scale. A fold (in cross section) downwards is called a syncline, a top an anticline.
If the tectonic movement continues after folding, a fold can break, and becomes a thrust, a kind of fault. Folding can also occur on a smaller scale by pressure from glaciers or ice sheets.
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